A-stems: verbs that end in -a
Primary: verbs that end in a consonant
The stem vowel is the main vowel in a verb, most often the vowel in the first syllable. Also remember that verbs agree in number with their subjects, so a plural verb will end in -r.
Two particular verbs
Equë, meaning says/said, has no tense or plural, is placed before the subject and is used in direct quotations with either a name or full pronoun
Auta-, meaning to go away, leave, pass, has two irregular sets of past and perfect tenses: oantë/oantië, meaning went away/has gone away (physical sense), and vánë/avánië meaning passed/has passed (as in being lost, having disappeared or died).
The present tense
Quenya present tense is the equivalent of the English present continuous, which means it is used for ongoing actions (I am writing). The verb to be is not needed in Quenya; lálëa corresponds to is laughing, without the need to add ná.
The present tense is obtained by adding -a to the end of the verb and by lengthening the stem vowel.
Note: because a-stem verbs already end in -a, they take on the ending -ëa in the present tense
The past tense
For both primary and a-stem verbs, the past tense is obtained by adding the ending -në. This ending is added directly to primary verbs ending in -r, -m and -n, but for the other consonants, the n of në is placed before the last consonant (the verb quet- becomes quenta "spoke")
The future tense
This tense is obtained by adding the ending -uva to both primary and a-stem verbs. The final a on the a-stems is dropped, to avoid a double a.
The aorist tense corresponds to the English present tense. A-stem verbs don't change, and primary verbs take on the ending -ë.
This is a form of a verb that works like a noun, formed by adding the ending -ië to the verbal stem. A-stems drop their -a and verbs ending in -ya drop this whole ending before adding -ië.
The ending -ië can be translated to the English ending -ing.
The perfect tense
This tense differs from English in the sense that the verb is all in one word, like the present tense. For primary verbs, the ending -ië is added to the verb stem. Then the stem vowel is copied to the beginning of the word and is lengthened, except if followed by more than one consonant.
Example: tec- (verb "write") becomes etécië (has written).
A-stem verbs are conjugated in the same way, and the final -a drops.
Example: cenda- (verb read) becomes ecendië (has read).
-verbs ending in -ya drop this ending.
-though it is unsure, it is assumed that verbs beginning with a vowel take no prefix.
The infinitive is the basic form of a verb (to be, for example). For primary verbs, -ë is added to the stem, and a-stems remain the same.
The negative verb
There is a verb in Quenya used to form negative expressions, that can be used alone meaning not to be or with another verb. The stem is um-, past tense úmë, future tense úva.
The active participle
This is an adjectival word, derived from an verb, used in much the same way as an adjective. Added to a verb, it is the equivalent to the English -ing at the end of an English verb. The active participle does not agree in number.
For primary verbs, -ala is added, and for a-stems, -la is added. In both cases, the stem-vowel is lengthened, except before a consonant cluster.
In Quenya, pronouns are added to the end of verbs, becoming pronominal endings.
I= -n or -nyë (example: venyanyë= I dare)
You= -l or -lyë (example: ruhtal= You terrify)
He, she, it= -s or -ryë (example: meryë= He-she-it wants)
The short form of these pronouns are often used, but if a second pronoun is necessary, the long form is used (example: veryanyel= I dare you). Also, though the ending -ryë is not verified in Tolkein's writings, it is accepted as the long form of -s. There are alternatives; -ro for he and -rë for she.
Quenya has several pronominal endings denoting the English word we:
-lvë, the inclusive we, that includes who is adressed
-lmë the exclusive we, that excludes who is adressed
-mmë the dual we, but whether inclusive, exclusive or both is not known
These possessive pronominal endings are added to nouns and denote ownership. When these are added to a noun beginning with a consonant, an -e is added except for -nya which takes an -i.
-nya = my
-lya = your
-rya = his, her, its
-lva = our (inclusive)
-lma = our (exclusive)
-mma = our (dual)
-nta = their