with gerunds to denote a purpose
with impersonal verbs
The singular ending for this case is -n, if the noun ends in a vowel. If the noun ends in a consonant, the ending becomes -en.
For plurals ending in -r, this ending is dropped and the ending -in is added. For plurals ending in -i, only -n is added.
For dual, the ending is -nt.
The gerund, when used with the dative case, denotes the idea of in order to, or with purpose of.
Lesson 8-Quenya cases continued
The allative case
This case is used to denote to in the sense of towards and on, upon, into.
The singular ending is -nna, which becomes -enna before a consonant.
For plural, the ending is -nnar, which becomes -innar before a consonant.
The dual ending is -nta. For dual forms in -u, there are two possible endings: -nta and -nna.
The ablative case
This case is used to denote from, but can also mean of, out of. The preposition et "out" and the verb ruc- "to fear" are followed by the ablative case.
The singular ending is -llo.
The plural ending is -llon, however -llor can also be used.
For dual, the ending is -lto. When a dual noun ends in -u, either -lto or -llo can be used.
Note: Another way to avoid impossible consonant combinations in a noun is to simply drop the consonant appearing originally in the noun, instead of adding another vowel to the case ending.
The locative case
This case is used to denote, of course, location in time or space, translated to in and sometimes on.
The singular ending is -ssë, which becomes -essë before a consonant.
The plural ending is -ssen, becoming -issen before a consonant.
The dual ending is -tsë.
Note: Since there are some nouns that end in -ssë without being locatives, it is easier to use the prepositions mi "in" and mí "in the" rather than the locative endings.
The instrumental case
This case is used for saying how something happened, or how something was done, in the sense of by what means, using what, by who. It is not used to mean with, in the sense of together with.
The singular ending is -nen, which becomes -enen if the noun ends in a consonant other than -n and -r.
The plural ending is -inen.
The dual ending is -nten. For nouns with a dual ending in -u, the ending might possibly be -nen (not sure).
Demonstratives are words that demonstrate things, that point things out. They are, to name a few, this/that/these/those. These demonstratives are placed after the noun, and form their plural like adjectives ending in -a. Quenya has various words for that, each with a particular meaning.
sina- "this", as used in English (example: this Elf)
tana- "that", as used in English (example: that Elf)
enta- "that", as in over there, in the future
yana- "that", as in formerly, in the past
These demonstratives are to be used as adjectives only. Quenya case endings can be added to demonstratives to change their meaning. If the noun is plural, the regular plural ending is added to it, even though the case ending is attached to the adjectival word.
Some nouns ending in -o have special stems ending in -u, used when a case ending is added. U-stems ending in -go/-co change to -gwi/-qui when the case ending begins in -i. If not, the case ending is added to the regular form of the word.
The following are the Quenya numbers and ordinals:
The particle lá
This particle can mean two things; beyond, used to compare two things, or not, used to negate sentances. For the latter, lá is placed before the verb in the sentance, and can be interchanged with the negative verb um-. Lá is mostly used in the present and perfect tenses.
There exist independent forms of Quenya pronouns, which were seen in Lesson 5. They are the following:
le "you" (plural and polite singular)
ce* "you" (familiar singular)
te* "they" (becomes tie with case endings)
*these are not certain
These pronouns are used when a case ending is necessary, when the copula is left out and as the subject of a sentance (pronominal endings are prefered).
le "you" (plural and polite singular)
tye "you" (familiar singular)
These pronouns are used when the verb has an object but no pronominal ending for the subject, in imperitive phrases and after gerunds in the dative case denoting in order to.
Pronouns in imperitive phrases
Pronouns are used in imperitive phrases when one wishes to specify to who the command (or request) is directed at, and to who (or what) the person adressed is asked to do something.
For the subject, the ending -t is added if there is one person adressed, or the ending -l if there are several persons adressed.
For the object, the object form of the independant pronoun is added to the particle á (or áva for negative requests), or is used as a seperate word. If a direct and an indirect pronoun are used, one must be a seperate word, because only one pronoun to be added to the particle.
These pronouns put an emphasis on themselves. The verb does not take any pronominal ending when used with an empathetic pronoun as a subject, but can still take the plural ending -r with a plural subject. The empathetic pronouns are:
eryë* "he", "she", "it"
elme* "we" (exclusive)
elvë* "we" (inclusive)
emmë "we" (dual)
* these are not certain
There also exist possessive empathetic pronouns: menya "our" and ninya "my" are the two existing examples.