Make your own free website on Tripod.com
Sindarin lessons 11 and 12



Lesson 11-More verbs



I-stem or basic verbs
These are slightly more difficult to conjugate, but not very. Most of the conjugations cause an i-umlaut, which was discussed in the last lesson; all e become i, and all a, o become e. The pronouns are the same as with a-stem verbs.

The infinitive The suffix -i is added to the verb stem, causing an i-umlaut. degi to slay

The present tense To conjugate this verb, the necessary pronominal ending is added to the infintive form of the verb, except for the 3rd person. In monosyllabic verbs, the vowel is lengthened with a circumflex (^) and in polysyllabic verbs there is no change from the verb stem. degin I slay degim we slay degich you slay degig you slay dâg slays degir they slay

The past tense This is a more complicated tense because it is conjugated depending on the sound of the verb. For the 3rd person, the following changes are seen: -when the verb ends in -r, an -n is added to the end of the verb. Verbs ending in -n take on another -n. -verbs ending in -l doubles this consonant -verbs ending in -d, -g, -dh, suffer an nasal infix and change, after the -n, to -t, -c, -d. This also happens to verbs ending in -b, but the -n also changes, to -m. -verbs ending in -v, having at one time ended in -mb, take on the ending -m in the past tense. For the other persons, the pronominal endings are added to the 3rd person conjugation of the verb, adding an -i before the ending (causes an i umlaut). Verbs ending in -nt, nc, -nd, -m, -mp change to -nn-, -ng-, -nn-, -mm-, -mm- before the pronominal ending. dingin I slayed dingim we slayed dingich you slayed dingig you slayed deng slayed dingir they slayed

The future tense This verb tense is obtained by adding the suffix -tha to the infinitive form of the verb, for the 3rd person singular. For the other persons, the pronominal ending is added to this -tha. Note that before the ending -n, the -a changes to -o. degithon I will slay degitham we will slay degithach you will slay degithag you will slay degitha will slay degithar they will slay

The imperitive This tense is obtained by adding the suffix -o to the verb stem. dago slay

The active participle The active, or present participle, is obtained by adding the suffix -el to the verb stem. When the stem has an i in it, the suffix changes to -iel. dagel slaying The perfective is obtained by adding the suffix -iel to the verb stem and by lengthening the stem vowel (adding an acute accent). Be careful not to confuse this with the active participle. The vowels a, e, o change to ó, í, ú, since they revert back into their primitive form. dógiel having slain

The passive participle The passive or past participle is obtained by adding the suffix -en to the past tense of the 3rd person singular. When this ending is added to nt, nc, mp, nd, m, these change to nn, ng, mm, nn, mm. The plural form of the past participle changes the -en to -in, causing an i-umlaut. dagen slain (singular) degin slain (plural)

The gerund This form of verb is obtained by adding the suffix -ed to the verb stem. daged slaying

Lesson 12-Verbs again



Mixed conjucation verbs These are verbs that, though they look like a-stems, behave like both types of verbs. These are verbs that have only one consonant before the final -a (besides -th or -ch). They are:
brona survive
fara- hunt
gala- grow
laba- hop
nara- tell
pada- walk
rada- make a way
aphada- follow
athrada- traverse
gannada- play a harp
lathrada- eavesdrop
limmida- moisten
nimmida- whiten
tangada- make firm
These verbs act like regular a-stems when conjugated to the present, future, imperitive, active participle and gerund. The 3rd person in the past, passive participle and perfective active participle are conjugated like regular i-stems. When the verb has a long vowel, it is shortened for the past tense, but stays the same for the perfective active participle. The other persons in the past tense are conjugated by adding -e- and the pronominal ending. Long vowels are shortened here as well.


Irregular verbs
These are verbs that are not conjugated normally. If you can remember which verbs are irregular, you can use the following conjugation chart to conjugate them: http://www.councilofelrond.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=EZCMS&file=index&page_id=3).
This lesson is difficult, and those of you incapable of understanding it need not toil over it. You can always give up on it and just check the conjugation chart at need. The irregular or special verbs are the following:
groga- feel terror
loda- float
toba- roof, cover over
soga- drink
elia- rain
anna- give
drava- hew
thora- fence
banga- trade
nod- tie, bond
tog- lead, bring
gwedh- bind
trenar- recount, tell to end
boe- it is necessary, one is compelled to, one must
These verbs fall into one of the following categories: impersonal, u surviving before a nasal, and various irregulars.

Impersonal verbs
An impersonal verb is an action that cannot be done by a person. The two impersonal verbs are boe- and elia-. Boe-, meaning "it is necessary", "must", does not change in a sentance, so the word boe is used in the same way everywhere. Elia-, meaning "rain", is conjugated as a regular a-stem except for the present and past tense. The present tense of elia- is ail rains. The past tense has two forms: eliant, the normal form, and aul, the irregular form.

U surviving before a nasal
In this form of verb, we have:
groga feel terror
loda float
soga drink
toba cover, roof over
nod tie, bind
tog lead, bring

These verbs should be conjugated like mixed conjugation verbs, except for the past tense, which is formed with a nasal infix. The final consonant and the vowel before the infix revert to their older form: grunc felt terror
lunt floated
sunc drank
tump covered, roofed over
nunt tied, bound
tunc lead, brought
Mentionned above are the conjugations for the 3rd person singular. The other persons are altered in one of the following ways: 1- stems having no final vowel originally are conjugated as normal i-stems 2- stems having a final a originally add an e before the pronominal ending Therefore, these verbs become the following before pronominal endings:
grunge-
lunne-
sunge-
tumme-
nynni-
tyngi-


Various irregular verbs
The following verbs are more irregular than the others, and are each conjugated in their own way. anna-, meaning give, is conjugated as a regular a-stem except in the past tense and past participle. Anna becomes aun in the past tense, changing to one- before pronominal endings. The past participle of anna is onen "given" (singular) and onin (plural) note: the o of onin is not affected by an i-umlaut because it is derived from the dipthong au. drava-, meaning hew, is conjugated as an a-stem except in the past tense, where it acts as an i-stem, becoming dramp, considered a poetic form of the regular dram. gwedh-, meaning bind, is only irregular in the past tense, where it becomes gwenhant. A regular form, gwend, exists, but is considered poetic. It is speculated that the passive participle similarly changed from gwennen to gwendhannen. thora-, meaning fence, is irregular in the past tense, the perfective active participle and the passive participle. The past tense is thaur "fencing", becoming thore- before the pronominal endings. The perfective active participle is thóriel "fencing". The passive participle is thoren "fencing" (singular) and thorin (plural) trenar-, meaning recount, tell the end, is regular except for the past tense, passive participle and perfective active participle. The past tense is trenor "told". The perfective active participle is trenóriel "telling". The passive participle is trenoren "told" (singular) and trenorin (plural). banga-, meaning trade, is a verb so irregular that there is no sure conjugation for it. There is banc, which could be either a form of the past tense (making banga- a mixed conjugation verb), or a noun meaning "trade". Both could be correct as well. To simplify matters, just treat banga- as a mixed conjugation verb, and banc as a noun.